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Climate Change Handbook

Climate is defined as the average prevailing weather conditions over a specific geographical area recorded over a long period of time, usually exceeding 30 years. The elements of weather that are usually taken into account in defining an area's climate include rainfall, temperature, sunshine records, frost occurrence, wind and evaporation.

Natural Factors Climate is influenced by a number of natural factors amongst which are latitude, continental/maritime location of an area, altitude, and topography. However, whilst the world's climate has always varied naturally, there is pool of evidence which shows that rising concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the earth's atmosphere that have resulted from human activity over the last two centuries are overriding this natural variability, leading to irreversible climate change.